Member Research

Member Research

Autism Art Exhibition

Posted on 2014-06-06

Dear Friends,

On the occasion of the Seventh session of the Conference of States Parties to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 10-12 June, and in recognition of the Seventh annual World Autism Awareness Day, I have the privilege to invite you to an Autism art exhibition, followed by a reception.

The event is expected to be honored with the presence of the United Nations Secretary-General and Mme. Ban.

Please RSVP to by 5 June.


Jacqueline Aidenbaum

University of Lethbridge Cyberbullying Research

Please see the below link to a research report of our work surveying pre-teens and teens in the context of southern Alberta as well as our most recent publication on the topic of cyberbullying.

Bright, R., and Dyck, M. (2011). It hurt big time: Rural adolescents’ experiences with cyberbullying. NORTHWEST PASSAGE: Journal of Educational Practices, Vol. 9(2), 104-116.

Abstract: In the 21st century, the growing use of online technologies has challenged parents and educators to understand the concerns and issues faced by adolescents with cyberbullying both in and outside the school context. The purpose of this study was to examine rural adolescents‘ experiences with cyberbullying in Canada. The participants included 1752 adolescents who attended 16 schools in rural Alberta. The 73-item online questionnaire included the following question: If you have ever known someone to be bullied, been a target of bullying, or ever bullied someone using online communication please describe the situation(s) and what happened as a result. Youth described online pretending behaviors, harassment, threat-making and violent activity. This study highlights the importance of teacher education and professional development programmes that are focused on helping adolescents navigate the complexities of their online communication. 

Thank you to Dr. Bright and Dr. Dyck for sharing this announcement!

The University at Buffalo Alberti Center for Bullying Abuse Prevention Conference

Posted on 2014-04-29

The University at Buffalo Alberti Center for Bullying Abuse Prevention will hold its annual conference,  on Thursday, October 2, 2014 from 8:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. at the Millennium Hotel in Buffalo, NY. The morning sessions will feature Dr. Douglas Gentile speaking on It Isn’t IS Brain Science: Media Violence as a Risk Factor for Aggression. A request for proposals for breakout sessions and posters is now available at Please consider submitting a proposal and spreading the word to others! Proposals are due June 20, 2014.

Thanks to Dr. Amanda Nickerson, for sharing this announcement.

BRNET Member Research Request

Posted on 2014-04-07

Dear Colleague,

We - Sian Jones, Gianluca Gini, Tiziana Pozzoli  - are currently conducting a systematic review of experimental work on group processes and bullying among children 18 years of age or under (where children, aged 18 years or under are the participants).

We are emailing in search of published or unpublished work in this area. We would appreciate it, if you could share with us any published data not listed on common electronic databases (e.g., book chapters, dissertations). We also seek to include unpublished papers or data (e.g., conference papers or posters, work in press or in progress) that include statistical details on this topic. Specifically, the paper should report statistics concerning at least one manipulation or measure of group processes in relation to bullying (e.g., group  norms, type of bullying, gender) and at least one measure of group processes (e.g., social identification, moral disengagement, group liking). We are particularly interested in responses to bullying scenarios, and are looking at experimental and quasi-experimental investigations. Manipulations or measures could be (but are by no means limited to) one of the  following:

* Self-reported social identification with a real or imagined group

* Self-reported thoughts, feelings or action tendencies concerning group behaviour in relation to bullying

* Peer or self-reported measures of actual group characteristics measured alongside responses to a bullying incident (e.g., popularity, victim status).

If you do have relevant work, we would be grateful if you could send the relevant information -- e.g., a standard report of the method and findings (via published papers, references, unpublished documents, etc.) -- to Sian Jones ( by 31st May, 2014.

Your help with, and contribution to, this project would help us enormously in making this systematic review more comprehensive and may also enhance the visibility of your work. We apologize for any potential cross-posting of this call and we look forward to hearing from you.


Sian (and on behalf of Gianluca and Tiziana)

New Cyberbullying Publications

Posted on 2014-02-11

DeSemet, A., Veldeman, C., Poels, K., Bastiaensens, S., Van Cleemput, K., Vandebosch, H., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2013). Determinants of self-reported bystander behavior in cyberbullying incidents amongst adolescents. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2013.0027 

Abstract: This study explores behavioral determinants of self-reported cyberbullying bystander behavior from a behav- ioral change theoretical perspective, to provide levers for interventions. Nine focus groups were conducted with 61 young adolescents (aged 12–16 years, 52% girls). Assertive defending, reporting to others, providing advice, and seeking support were the most mentioned behaviors. Self-reported bystander behavior heavily depended on contextual factors, and should not be considered a fixed participant role. Bystanders preferred to handle cyberbullying offline and in person, and comforting the victim was considered more feasible than facing the bully. Most prevailing behavioral determinants to defend or support the victim were low moral disengagement, that the victim is an ingroup member, and that the bystander is popular. Youngsters felt they received little encouragement from their environment to perform positive bystanding behavior, since peers have a high acceptance for not defending and perceived parental support for defending behavior is largely lacking. These results suggest multilevel models for cyberbullying research, and interventions are needed. With much previous research into cyberbullying insufficiently founded in theoretical models, the employed framework of the Integrative Model and Social Cognitive Theory may inspire future studies into bystander behavior. 

Bastiaensens, S., Vandebosch, H., Poels, K., Van Cleemput, K., DeSmet, A., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2013). Cyberbullying on social network sites. An experimental study into bystanders’ behavioural intentions to help the victim or reinforce the bully. Computers in Human Behavior,  31, 259-271. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2013.10.036 


Cyberbullying on social network sites poses a significant threat to the mental and physical health of vic- timized adolescents. Although the role of bystanders in solving bullying instances has been demonstrated repeatedly in research on traditional bullying, their role in cyberbullying remains relatively understudied. Therefore, we set up an experimental scenario study in order to examine the influence of contextual fac- tors (severity of the incident, identity and behaviour of other bystanders) on bystanders’ behavioural intentions to help the victim or reinforce the bully in cases of harassment on Facebook. Four hundred and fifty-three second year students of Flemish secondary schools participated in the study. The results on the one hand showed that bystanders had higher behavioural intentions to help the victim when they witnessed a more severe incident. Incident severity also interacted with other bystanders’ identity in influencing behavioural intentions to help the victim. On the other hand, bystanders had higher behav- ioural intentions to join in the bullying when other bystanders were good friends rather than acquain- tances. In addition, an interaction effect was found between other bystanders’ identity and behaviour on behavioural intentions to join in the bullying. Furthermore, both helping and reinforcing behavioural intentions differed according to gender. 

New Publication in the Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology

Posted on 2013-12-14

Please see the below citation and link for a new publication on teacher-child relationships and peer victimization:

Runions, K. C., & Shaw, T. (2013). Teacher-child relationship, child withdrawal and aggression in the developmental of peer victimization. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 34, 319-327. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2013.09.002 

Thank you to Dr. Kevin Runions for sharing this article!

Journal of Learning Disabilities Publication

Posted on 2013-07-26

Please find a recent publication from the Journal of Learning Disabilities (OnlineFirst) below

Rose, C. A., Espelage, D. L., Monda-Amaya, L. E., Shogren, K. A., & Aragon, S. R. (2013). Bullying and middle school students with and without specific learning disabilities: An examination of social-ecological predictors. Journal of Learning Disabilities.Prepublished July 25, 2013.               

doi: 10.1177/0022219413496279

The link to the article can be found here:

Thank you to Dr. Chad Rose for sharing this announcement

Bullying in schools and its relation to parenting and family life

Posted on 2013-07-22

Please find the below article that draws attention to research on bullying, parenting and family life from the Family Matters published by the Australian Institute of Family Studies.

The reference may be of interest to BRNET members. Thank you to Dr. Ken Rigby for sharing!

Rigby, K. (2013) Bullying in schools and its relation to parenting and family life, Family Matters. 91. 61-67.

Article in Pediatrics

Posted on 2013-03-05

Please find the below article, which was recently featured in Pediatrics.

Robinson, J. P., Espelage, D. L., & Rivers, I. (2013). Developmental trends in peer victimization and emotional distress in LGB and heterosexual youth. Pediatrics, 131, 1-8.doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-2595d


OBJECTIVES: This study had 2 objectives: Our first objective was to provide the first evidence of developmental trends in victimization rates for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB)- and heterosexual-identified youth, both in absolute and relative terms, and to examine differences by gender. Our second objective was to examine links between victimization, sexual identity, and later emotional distress. 

METHODS: Data are from a nationally representative prospective cohort study of youth in England were collected annually between 2004 and 2010. Our final analytic dataset includes 4135 participants with data at all 7 waves; 4.5% (n = 187) identified as LGB. Analyses included hierarchical linear modeling, propensity score matching, and structural equation modeling.

RESULTS: LGB victimization rates decreased in absolute terms. However, trends in relative rates were more nuanced: Gay/bisexual-identified boys became more likely to be victimized compared with heterosexual-identified boys (wave 1: odds ratio [OR] = 1.78, P = .011; wave 7: OR = 3.95, P = .001), whereas relative rates among girls approached parity (wave 1: OR = 1.95, P = .001; wave 7: OR = 1.18, P = .689), suggesting different LGB–heterosexual relative victimization rate trends for boys and girls. Early victimization and emotional distress explained about 50% of later LGB–heterosexual emotional distress disparities for both boys and girls (each P < .015).

CONCLUSIONS: Victimization of LGB youth decreases in absolute, but not necessarily relative, terms. The findings suggest that addressing LGB victimization during adolescence is critical to reducing LGB–heterosexual emotional distress disparities but additional support may be necessary to fully

 Link to the article:


Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship in Children's Mental Health and Violence Prevention

Posted on 2013-01-26

Applications are invited for a 12-month Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship under the supervision of Dr. Tracy Vaillancourt at the University of Ottawa. Please click on this linkfor more information.

American Psychologist Article on Violence Toward Teachers

Posted on 2013-01-11

Please see our forthcoming American Psychologist article on Violence Directed Toward Teachers. Much of what we are finding in our survey research of teachers includes intimidating behaviors on the part of teachers and students. We worked many years on this initiative and would like to make sure folks actively engaged in research have access to the manuscript (attached) so that they can expand this research area. Very proud of this manuscript! The review and revision process was well worth it.

Here is the citation and abstract:

Espelage, D., Anderman, E. M., Brown, V. E., Jones, A., Lane, K. L., McMahon, S. D., Reddy, L. A., & Reynolds, C. R. (2013, January 7). Understanding and Preventing Violence Directed Against Teachers: Recommendations for a National Research, Practice, and Policy Agenda. American Psychologist. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0031307

Violence directed against K–12 teachers is a serious problem that demands the immediate attention of researchers, providers of teacher pre-service and in-service training, school administrators, community leaders, and policymakers. Surprisingly, little research has been conducted on this growing problem despite the broad impact teacher victimization can have on schooling, recruitment, and retention of highly effective teachers and on student academic and behavioral outcomes. Psychologists should play a leadership role in mitigating school violence, including violence directed toward teachers. There is a need for psychologists to conduct research accurately assessing the types and scope of violence that teachers experience; to comprehensively evaluate the individual, classroom, school, community, institutional, and cultural contextual factors that might predict and/or explain types of teacher violence; and to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of classroom, school, and district-wide prevention and intervention strategies that target teacher violence in school systems. Collectively, the work of psychologists in this area could have a substantial impact on schooling, teacher experience and retention, and overall student performance.

Here is the press release as well:


Dr. Dorothy Espelage

New Publications in Journal of Educational Psychology and Journal of School Health

Posted on 2012-11-05

Online First Publication, October 22, 2012. CITATION:

Cornell, D., Gregory, A., Huang, F., & Fan, X. (2012, October 22). Perceived Prevalence of

Teasing and Bullying Predicts High School Dropout Rates. Journal of Educational Psychology.

Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0030416


This prospective study of 276 Virginia public high schools found that the prevalence of teasing and

bullying (PTB) as perceived by both 9th-grade students and teachers was predictive of dropout rates for

this cohort 4 years later. Negative binomial regression indicated that one standard deviation increases in

student- and teacher-reported PTB were associated with 16.5% and 10.8% increases in the number of

dropouts, respectively, after controlling for the effects of other predictors, including school size, student

body poverty and minority composition, community crime rates, and performance on standardized

achievement testing. The predictive values of student and teacher perceptions of PTB were comparable

in magnitude to the predictive values for other commonly recognized correlates of dropout rates. These

results provide new evidence that the prevalence of peer victimization in high school is an important

factor in high school academic performance.



Bullying Climate and School Engagement in Ninth Grade Students


Citation: Mehta BS, Cornell D, Fan X, Gregory A. Bullying climate and school engagement in ninth grade students. J Sch Health.

2013; 83: 45-52.


BACKGROUND: Many authorities agree that bullying has a widespread impact on school climate, affecting bystanders as well

as victims. This study tested the contention that a climate of bullying can have a schoolwide impact on student engagement in


METHODS: Hierarchical linear modeling assessed the relations between student perception of bullying climate and student

engagement at the individual and school level in a statewide sample of 7058 ninth graders randomly selected from 289 schools

participating in the Virginia High School Safety Study. Student engagement was assessed by self-report scales measuring

commitment to school and involvement in school activities.

RESULTS: Individual differences in perception of school climate characterized by bullying were associated with lower

commitment to school, but not less involvement in school activities. School level differences in student perceptions of bullying

climate were associated with both lower commitment to school and less involvement in school activities, after controlling for the

effects of gender, race, school size, proportion of ethnic minority students in the school, and individual level perception of

bullying climate.

CONCLUSION: Efforts to improve student engagement should consider the schoolwide impact of bullying on all students.

Keywords: bullying climate; school engagement.

Bullying and LGBTQ Article Featured in Educational Researcher

Posted on 2012-10-26

Please see a new article (abstract below) featured in Educational Researcher, authored by Joseph P. Robinson and Dorothy L. Espelage. Please see Volume 41, No. 8, pp. 309-319. 

Bullying Explains Only Part of LGBTQ-Heterosexual Risk Disparities: Implications for Policy and Practice

Students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) experience higher rates of victimization by bullying than do their heterosexual-identified peers. In this article, we investigate the extent to which this difference in rates of victimization can explain LGBTQ youths’ greater rates of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and unexcused absences from school. Our sample consisted of 11,337 students in Grades 7 through 12 from 30 schools in Dane County, Wisconsin. Using both multilevel covariate-adjusted models and propensity-score-matching models, we found that although victimization does explain a portion of the LGBTQ–heterosexual risk disparities, substantial differences per- sist even when the differences in victimization are taken into account. For example, LGBTQ-identified students were 3.3 times as likely to think about suicide (< .0001), 3.0 times as likely to attempt suicide (= .007), and 1.4 times as likely to skip school (= .047) as propensity-score-matched heterosexual-identified students within the same school who reported equivalent levels of peer victimization. Moreover, in our propensity-score-matched samples, we found substantial differences in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts at both higher and lower levels of victimization. This con- sistent pattern of findings suggests that policies aimed simply at reducing bullying may not be effective in bringing LGBTQ youth to the level of their heterosexual peers in terms of psychological and educational outcomes. Additional policies may be needed to pro- mote safe, supportive school environments.

New Article Featured in Behavioral Disorders

Posted on 2012-10-05

A new article has been released that was written by Drs. Chad Rose and Dorothy Espelage. Below are the full citation and abstract for the article. Enjoy!

Rose, C. A., & Espelage, D. L. (2012). Risk and protective factors associated with the bullying involvement of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 37(3), 133-148. 

ABSTRACT: Bullying has been recognized as a dynamic process, where involvement is based on interactions between an individual and the social-ecological factors related to the individual’s environment. While involvement in bullying is not exclusive to one population of students, evidence suggests that students with disabilities are overrepresented within the bullying dynamic. However, few empirical studies have explored subgroup differences among this population of students. The current study examined rates of bullying involvement and the intersection of individual attributes among middle school students (n 5 163) identified with specific disabilities and their peers without disabilities (n 5 163). As hypothesized, students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) engaged in significantly higher levels of bullying and fighting than other subgroups of students. Additionally, higher levels of anger predicted higher levels of bully perpetration for students with EBD, where higher levels of victimization predicted higher levels of bully perpetration for students with disabilities other than EBD. These findings demonstrate the importance of recognizing the influence of the characteristic differences between subgroups of students with disabilities, and the unique influence these characteristics may have on student involvement within the bullying dynamic.

Bullying Articles Featured in Special Issue of The Prevention Researcher

Posted on 2012-09-27

The September 2012 Special Issue of The Prevention Researcher, "Adolescent Bullying," features articles from multiple BRNET members and bullying scholars. Topics that are covered include bullying in adolescence, bullying prevention, youth perspectives on bullying, cyberbullying, and preventing bullying of LGBT youth. The issue can be accessed at this website

New Articles Available in the Journals of Adolescent Health and Aggressive Behavior

Posted on 2012-08-20

Below are the citations for two new papers on bullying, victimization, and defending. Both articles make use of (network) data on bully-victim dyads. Thank you to Rene Veenstra for sharing these articles!

- Huitsing, G., & Veenstra, R. (2012). Bullying in classrooms: Participant roles from a social network perspective. Aggressive Behavior, DOI: 10.1002/ab.21438

- Sainio, M., Veenstra, R., Huitsing, G., & Salmivalli, C. (2012). Same- versus other-sex victimization: Are the risk factors similar? Aggressive Behavior, DOI: 10.1002/ab.21445. 

Plus one TRAILS-article:

- Jaspers, M., De Winter, A., Veenstra, R., Ormel, J., Verhulst, F. C., & Reijneveld, S. A. (2012). Preventive child health care findings on early childhood predict peer-group social status in early adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health,

Below are additional articles to peruse:


- Nederhof, E., Jorg, F., Raven, D., Veenstra, R., Verhulst, F. C., Ormel, J., & Oldehinkel, A.J. (2012). Benefits of extensive recruitment effort persist during follow-ups and are consistent across age and survey method. The TRAILS study. BMC Medical Research Methodology,
- Huitsing, G., Veenstra, R., Sainio, M., & Salmivalli. C. (2012). “It must be me” or “It could be them?”: The impact of the social network position of bullies and victims on victims’ adjustment. Social Networks, doi:10.1016/j.socnet.2010.07.002
- Jansen, P.W., Verlinden, M., Dommisse-Van Berkel, A., Mieloo, C., Van der Ende, J., Veenstra, R., Verhulst, F.C., Jansen, W., & Tiemeier, H. (2012). Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighborhood socioeconomic status matter? BMC Public Health, 
- Sijtsema, J. J., Veenstra, R., Lindenberg, S., Van Roon, A. M., Verhulst, F. C., Ormel, J., & Riese, H. (2012). Heart rate and antisocial behavior: Mediation and moderation by affiliation with bullies. The TRAILS study. Journal of Adolescent Health,

- Ormel, J., Oldehinkel, A. J., Sijtsema, J. J., Raven, D., Van Oort, F. V. A., Veenstra, R., Vollebergh, W. A. M., & Verhulst, F. C. (2012). The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Design, current status, and selected findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 
- Huitsing, G., Van Duijn, M. A. J., Snijders, T. A. B., Wang, P., Sainio, M., Salmivalli, C.,& Veenstra, R. (2012). Univariate and multivariate models of positive and negative networks: Liking, disliking, and bully-victim relationships social networks. Social Networks. 
- Salmivalli, C., Garandeau, C., & Veenstra, R. (2012). KiVa anti-bullying program: Implications for school adjustment. In A.M. Ryan & G.W. Ladd (eds.), Peer relationships and adjustment at school (pp.). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. 
- Sijtsema, J.J., Nederhof, E., Veenstra, R., Ormel, J., Oldehinkel, A.J., & Ellis, B.J. (2012). Effects of family cohesion, and heart rate reactivity on aggressive/rule-breaking behavior and prosocial behavior in adolescence: The TRAILS study. Development and Psychopathology 

- Munniksma, A., Flache, A., Verkuyten, M., & Veenstra, R. (2012). Parental acceptance of children’s intimate ethnic outgroup relations: The role of culture, status, and family reputation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36, 575-585. 
- Ivanova, K., Veenstra, R., & Mills, M. (2012). Who dates? The effects of temperament, puberty, and parenting on early adolescent experience with dating. Journal of Early Adolescence, 42, 340-363. 
- Van de Werfhorst, H.G., Bergstra, M., & Veenstra, R. (2012). School disciplinary climate, behavioral problems, and academic achievement in the Netherlands. In R. Arum & M. Velez (ed.) Improving learning environments. School discipline and student achievement in comparative perspective (pp. 196-221). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press (Studies in Social Inequality). 
- Dijkstra, J.K., Gest, S.D., Lindenberg, S., Veenstra, R. & Cillessen, A.H.N. (2012). Testing three explanations of the emergence of weapon carrying in peer context. The role of aggression, victimization, and the social network. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50, 371-376. 
- Veenstra, R. & Steglich, C. (2012). Actor-based model for network and behavior dynamics. In B. Laursen, T.D. Little, & N.A. Card (eds.), Handbook of Developmental Research Methods (pp. 598-618). New York: Guilford.


Hong & Espelage: A Review of Bullying in Schools

Posted on 2012-06-07

BRNET member Dr. Dorothy Espelage and her colleague Jun Sung Hong have just published an article in Aggression and Violent Behavior. Using an ecological model, the article reviews a wide variety of risk factors associated with bullying. The citation and abstract are below. Interested readers are encouraged to contact Dr. Espelage to obtain a copy of the article.

Hong, J. S. & Espelage, D. L. (2012). A review of research on bullying and peer victimization in school: An ecological system analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 311-322. DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2012.03.003

Abstract: Bullying and peer victimization in school are serious concerns for students, parents, teachers, and school officials in the U.S. and around the world. This article reviews risk factors associated with bullying and peer victimization in school within the context of Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework. This review integrates empirical findings on the risk factors associated with bullying and peer victimization within the context of micro- (parent–youth relationships, inter-parental violence, relations with peers, school connectedness, and school environment), meso- (teacher involvement), exo- (exposure to media violence, neighborhood environment), macro- (cultural norms and beliefs, religious affiliation), and chronosystem (changes in family structure) levels. Theories that explain the relationships between the risk factors and bullying behavior are also included. We then discuss the efficacy of the current bullying prevention and intervention programs, which is followed by directions for future research.

New Research From Paul Downes

Posted on 2012-06-01

Dr. Paul Downes has recently released two articles involving bullying in the context of early school leaving prevention. Please follow the links below to view the articles.

Downes, P. (2011). Multi/Interdisciplinary teams for early school leaving prevention: Developing a European Strategy informed by international evidence and research. European Commission Network of Experts on the Social aspects of Education and Training (NESET).

Downes, P. (2011). The neglected shadow: European perspectives on emotional supports for early school leaving prevention, The International Journal of Emotional Education, Volume 3, Number 2, 3-36.

New Publications from Dr. Rigby

Posted on 2012-04-11

Dr. Rigby has released three new publications on bullying. Interested readers can contact Dr. Rigby at

Rigby,K. (2012) Bullying in schools: Addressing desires, not only behaviours. Refections on the field Educ Psychology Review. Published on line, 23 March, 2012.

Rigby,K (2012). What schools may do to reduce bullying. In Shane Jimmerson et al (eds) Handbook of School Violence and School Safety. (2nd Edition) New York: Routledge, 397- 40.

Rigby,K. (2012) Bullying. The Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology. Edited by Daniel J. Christie. New York:Wiley

Recent publications from Professor Espelage and the University of Illinois - Urbana-Champaign Violence Prevention Lab

Posted on 2012-04-10

Below are the recent published and in press research articles authored or co-authored by Dr. Dorothy Espelage. Interested readers can contact her about obtaining copies of the manuscripts at This list can also be downloaded here.

Hong, J.S., Espelage, D.L., Ferguson, C.J., & Allen-Meares, P. (in press). School violence prevention and intervention programs and policies after the Columbine shootings: An ecological systems analysis. In G.W. Muschert, S. Henry, N.L. Bracy, & A.A. Peguro (Eds.), The Columbine effect: Fear and the expansion of school antiviolence policy.

Espelage, D.L., Rao, M.A., & Craven, R. (in press). Relevant theories for cyberbullying research. In S. Bauman (Ed.), Principles of Cyberbullying Research. New York: Routledge.

Espelage, D.L., Rao, M.A., & De La Rue, L. (in press). Current research on school-based bullying: A social-ecological perspective. Journal of Social Distress & Homeless.

Hong, J.S., Kral, M.J., Espelage, D.L., & Allen-Meares, P. (in press). The social ecology of adolescent-initiated parent abuse: A review of the literature. Child Psychiatry and Human Development.

Hong, J.S., Espelage, D.L., Grogan-kaylor, A., & Allen-meares, P. (in press). Identifying potential mediators and moderators of the association between child maltreatment and bullying perpetration and victimization in school. Educational Psychology Review.

Hong, J.S., & Espelage, D.L. (in press). A review of research on bullying and peer victimization in school: An ecological systems analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior.

Espelage, D., & Low, S.M. (in press). Prevention of bullying, dating violence, & sexual violence among children and adolescents. In E.M. Vera, (Ed.) Oxford Handbook of Prevention in Counseling Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Espelage, D.L., & Poteat, V.P. (in press). Counseling psychologists in schools. In Fouad, N., Carter, J., & Subich, L. (Eds.), Handbook of Counseling Psychology (Volume 2). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Mancilla-Caceres, J.F., Pu, W., Amir, E., & Espelage, D.L. (2012). Detecting Bullies with a Computer Game. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Six AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-12).

Mancilla-Caceres, J.F., Pu, W., Amir, E., & Espelage, D. (2012). A Computer-in-the-loop Approach for Detecting Bullies in the Classroom. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling, and Prediction (SBP'12). Springer Berlin/Heidelberg.

Espelage, D.L., Green, H.D., & Polanin, J. (2012). Willingness to intervene in bullying episodes among middle school students: Individual and peer-group influences. Journal of Early Adolescence. Online first.

Espelage, D. L., Low, S., & De La Rue, L. (2012). Relations between peer victimization subtypes, family violence, and psychological outcomes during adolescence. Psychology of Violence. Online first.

Espelage, D.L., Basile, K.C., & Hamburger, M.E. (2012). Bullying experiences and co-occurring sexual violence perpetration among middle school students: Shared and unique risk factors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50, 60 – 65.

Polanin, J., Espelage, D.L., & Pigott, T.D. (2012). A meta-analysis of school-based bullying prevention programs’ effects on bystander intervention behavior and empathy attitude. School Psychology Review, 41 (1).

Ybarra, M., Mitchell, K., & Espelage D.L. (2012). Comparisons of bully and unwanted sexual experiences online and offline among a national sample of youth. In Complementary Pediatrics, Book 2, Chapter 11, 203 – 216 InTech. ISBN 978-953-308-63-9

Hong, J.S., & Espelage, D.L. (2012). A review of mixed methods research on bullying and peer victimization in school. Educational Review, 64(1), 115-126.

Swearer, S.M., Espelage, D.L., Koenig, B., Berry, B., Collins, A., & Lembeck, P. (2012). A Social-ecological model of bullying prevention and intervention in early adolescence. In S.R. Jimerson, A.B. Nickerson, M.J. Mayer, & M.J. Furlong, The Handbook of School Violence and School Safety: International Research and Practice (pp. 333 – 355). NY: Routledge.

Espelage, D.L., & Poteat, V.P. (2012). School-based prevention of peer relationship problems. In Betsy Altmaier & Jo-Ida Hansen (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Counseling Psychology (pp. 703 – 722). New York: Oxford University Press.

Espelage, D., & Low, S.M. (2012). Bullying among children and adolescents: Social-emotional learning approaches to prevention. In K. Nader (Ed.), School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances: Early Preventive Interventions (pp. 205-219). New York: Routledge.

Espelage, D.L., & Holt, M.K. (2012). Understanding and preventing bullying and sexual harassment in school. In K.R. Harris, S. Graham, T. Urdan, S. Graham, J.M. Royer, & M. Zeidner, APA educational psychology handbook, Vol 2: Individual differences and cultural and contextual factors (pp. 391-416). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Rose, C. A., Espelage, D. L., Aragon, S. R., & Elliott, J. (2011). Bullying and victimization among students in special education and general education curricula. Exceptionality Education International, 21(3), 2-14.

Hong, J.S., Espelage, D.L., & Kral, M.J. (2011). Understanding suicide among sexual minority youth in America: An ecological systems analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 885-894.

Robinson, J.P. & Espelage, D.L. (2011). Inequities in educational and psychological outcomes between LGBTQ and straight students in middle and high school. Educational Researcher, 40, 315-330.

Espelage, D.L., & De La Rue, L. (2011). School bullying: Its nature and ecology. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine & Health.

Hong, J.S., Cho, H., Allen-Meares, & Espelage, D.L. (2011). The social ecology of the Columbine High School shootings. Children & Youth Services Review, 33(6), 861-868.

Espelage, D.L., & De La Rue, L. (2011). Getting serious about community-based approaches to youth violence prevention. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, 5, (1), 3-5. doi:10.1353/cpr.2011.0006

Rose, C. A., Monda-Amaya, L. E., & Espelage, D. L. (2011). Bullying perpetration and victimization in special education: A review of the literature. Remedial and Special Education, 32 (2), 114-130. doi:10.177/071932510361247

Ybarra, M., Espelage, D.L., & Martin, S. (2011). Unwanted sexual and harassing experiences: From School to Text Messaging. In D. L. Espelage, & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in North American schools: A social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention. New York: Routledge.

Swearer, S. M., & Espelage, D. L. (2011). A social-ecological framework of bullying among youth. In D. L. Espelage, & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in North American schools: A social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention. New York: Routledge.

What can schools do about cases of bullying?

Posted on 2012-03-15

Dr. Ken Rigby has recently authored a new article appearing in Pastoral Care in Education entitled "What can schools do about cases of bullying?" The reference and abstract are below. Interested readers can contact Dr. Rigby for copies of the article.

Reference: Rigby, K. (2011). What can schools do about cases of bullying? Pastoral Care in Education29, 273-285.

Abstract: Reports from schoolchildren across a range of countries indicate that interventions by teachers in cases of bullying are commonly unsuccessful, especially with older students. This article provides a brief description and critical examination of six major intervention strategies employed in schools and points to the need for better training of teachers in this area and the development of judgement about which methods to employ in particular cases.


Additionally, Dr. Rigby has recently authored two seperate books. More information on his work can be found at

1.    Ken Rigby (2010).  Bullying interventions in schools: six basic approaches.Camberwell:  Australian  Council for Educational  Research

Drawing on research evidence in a range of countries this book addresses the  urgent need  for improving the effectiveness of school interventions in cases of bullying. It critically examines six major intervention methods: the traditional disciplinary approach; strengthening the victim; mediation; restorative practice; the support group method; and the method of shared concern and advises on their  appropriateness in different situations.

2.    Ken Rigby (2011). The Method of Shared Concern: a positive approach to bullying in schools. Camberwell:  Australian  Council for Educational  Research.

This book examines in detail the Method of Shared Concern, a non-punitive approach to addressing bullying in which there is significant group involvement. It presents and appraises the research evidence available from different countries regarding its effectiveness, and discusses how it can be applied by trained practitioners in selected cases of bullying. 

New Cross Cultural Research on Bystanders

Posted on 2012-02-06

Dr. Gianluca Gini has recently published a cross-cultural article on bystander reactions to bullying. The article is currently available as an early view pdf and can be obtained here: The reference and abstract are below.

Pozzoli, T., Ang, R. P., Gini, G. (2012). Bystanders’ reactions to bullying: A cross-cultural analysis of personal correlates among Italian and Singaporean students. Social Development. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00651.x


This study examined the role of attitudes against bullying and perceived peer pressure for intervention in explaining defending the victim and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. Participants were 1031 school-age children from two culturally diverse settings, namely Italy and Singapore, which are similar on several dimensions (e.g., quality of life, child welfare) but dramatically differ on other aspects, such as individualism—collectivism orientation. Multilevel analyses showed that country and participants' gender moderated the relations between individual predictors and behavior during bullying episodes. In particular, although individual attitudes were a stronger predictor of Italian students'—especially girls'—behavior, perceived peer expectations were more strongly associated with behavior of Singaporean participants. This study contributes to the literature by being the first to provide data analyzing the association between defending and passive bystanding behavior and different correlates using a cross-cultural approach.

Discriminatory Peer Aggression among Children as a Function of Minority Status and Group Proportion in School Context

Posted on 2012-01-10

Dr. Simon Hunter has announced an upcoming article to be published in the European Journal of Social Psychology. The abstract and reference are below. The article is currently available as an early view pdf and can be obtained here.

Durkin, K., Hunter, S.C, Levin, K., Bergin, D., Heim, D., & Howe, C. (in press). Discriminatory peer aggression among children as a function of minority status and group proportion in school context. European Journal of Social Psychology.


This study investigates discriminatory peer aggression among primary school aged children as a function of minority status (based on nationality, ethnicity, religion) of the target and the relative proportions of minority and majority children in the school. Participants were 925 8- to 12-year-olds attending schools in Britain. Children of minority status were no more likely than children of majority background to experience peer aggression in general. However, minority children were more likely to experience being the victims of discriminatory aggression. Two contrasting predictions were tested: that discriminatory aggression would be more likely when the minority group was relatively small in number or, alternatively, that as the proportions of children of minority backgrounds increased across schools, discriminatory aggression would be greater. The latter hypothesis was supported. Findings also revealed that in schools with a lower minority presence, discriminatory aggression experienced by majority children was significantly lower than that reported by minority children. When the school minority rate exceeded 81%, discriminatory aggression was more commonly experienced among majority children than among minority children.

Examination of the Predictors of Latent Class Typologies of Bullying Involvement Among Middle School Students

Posted on 2012-01-09

BRNET member Dr. Peter Lovegrove has recently published an article in the Journal of School Violence. The reference and abstract are below. Interested readers are invited to contact Dr. Lovegrove about obtaining copies of the manuscript by emailing him at

Lovegrove, P. J., Henry, K. L., & Slater, M. D. (2012). Examination of the predictors of latent class typologies of bullying involvement among middle school students. Journal of School Violence, 11, 75-93.


This study employs latent class analysis to construct bullying involvement typologies among 3,114 students (48% male, 58% White) in 40 middle schools across the United States. Four classes were constructed: victims (15%); bullies (13%); bully/victims (13%); and noninvolved (59%). Respondents who were male and participated in fewer conventional activities were more likely to be members of the victims class. Students who were African American and reported being less successful at school had a higher likelihood of membership in the bullies class. Bully/victims shared characteristics with bullies and victims: Students with more feelings of anger toward others and a higher tendency toward sensation-seeking had a higher likelihood of membership in the bullies and bully/victims classes, whereas lower levels of social inclusion was associated with membership in the victims and bully/victims classes.

Humor Styles Questionnaire by Dr. Claire Fox

Posted on 2011-12-06

Dr. Claire Fox has recently published a Humor Styles Questionnaire in the journalHumor. The abstract and reference are below. Interested readers can obtain copies of the manuscript from Dr. Fox by contacting her through her website.

Fox, C. L., Dean, S.  Lyford, K. (in press). Development of a humor styles questionnaire for children and young people. Humor. 


The adult Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) assumes that humor can be both adaptive (‘self-enhancing’ and ‘affiliative’) and maladaptive (‘aggressive’ and ‘self-defeating’). The aim of the research was to develop a reliable and valid scale to assess adaptive and maladaptive humor in children – an adaptation of the adult HSQ. Over two studies 1187 UK school children aged 9-15 years completed the 24-item adapted child HSQ. In the second study the children completed the questionnaire on two occasions, one week apart, and also measures of psychosocial adjustment. For children aged 11 years and upwards there was a clear four factor structure to the questionnaire with all sub-scales showing acceptable levels of internal and test re-test reliability. As predicted, affiliative humor and self-defeating humor were associated with all four measures of psychosocial adjustment. Aggressive humor was associated with lower anxiety and higher self-perceived social competence for boys, and with lower global self-worth and higher depression for girls. Longitudinal research is needed to disentangle the causal pathways and examine further the links between children’s humor styles and their social competence.

Latest Research from Dr. Cornell

Posted on 2011-12-06

Listed below are the 2011 and in press research articles from Dr. Dewey Cornell. Interested readers can contact Dr. Cornell about obtaining a copy of the manuscripts

Cornell, D., & Allen, K. (2011). Development, evaluation, and future directions of the Virginia Student Threat Assessment Guidelines. Journal of School Violence, 10, 88-106. doi: 10.1080/15388220.2010.519432

Lee, T., Cornell, D., Gregory, A., & Fan, X. (2011). High suspension schools and dropout rates for black and white students. Education and Treatment of Children, 34, 167-192.

Cornell, D., & Mehta, S. (2011). Counselor confirmation of middle school student self-reports of bullying victimization. Professional School Counseling, 14, 261-270.

Dill, K., Redding, R., Smith, P., Surette, R., & Cornell, D. (2011). Recurrent issues in efforts to prevent homicidal youth violence in schools: Expert opinions. New Directions for Youth Development129, 113-128.

Bondü, R., Cornell, D., Scheithauer, H. (2011). Student homicidal violence in schools: An international problem. New Directions for Youth Development129, 13-30.

Cornell, D. (2011). A developmental perspective on the Virginia Student Threat Assessment Guidelines. New Directions for Youth Development129, 43-60.

Cornell, D., & Scheithauer, H. (Eds.) (2011). Columbine a decade later: What we have learned about the prevention of homicidal violence in schools. New Directions for Youth Development129.

Baly, M., & Cornell, D. (2011). Effects of an educational video on student reports of bullying. Journal of School Violence10, 221-238. DOI:10.1080/15388220.2011.578275.

Shirley, E., & Cornell, D. (2011). The contribution of student perceptions of school climate to understanding the disproportionate punishment of African American students in middle school. School Psychology International. doi: 10.1177/0143034311406815.

Gregory, A., Cornell, D., & Fan, X. (2011). The relationship of school structure and support to suspension rates for Black and White high school students. American Educational Research Journal.

Cornell, D., Gregory, A., & Fan, X. (2011). Reductions in long-term suspensions following adoption of the Virginia Student Threat Assessment Guidelines. Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary School Principals, 95, 175-194.

Cornell, D., Klein, J., Konold, T., & Huang, F. (2011). Effects of validity screening items on adolescent survey data. Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0024824.

Cornell, D., Allen, K., & Fan, X. (in press). A randomized controlled study of the Virginia Student Threat Assessment Guidelines in grades K-12. School Psychology Review.

Mehta, S., Cornell, D., Fan, X., & Gregory, A. (in press). Bullying climate and school engagement in ninth grade students.  Journal of School Health.

Research Materials from Dr. Veenstra

Posted on 2011-11-13

Dr. Rene Veenstra has made the following articles available to us.

Veenstra, R. & Steglich, C. (2012). Actor-based model for network and behavior dynamics. In B. Laursen, T.D. Little, & N.A. Card (eds.), Handbook of Developmental Research Methods (pp. 598-618). New York: Guilford.

Dijkstra, J.K., Gest, S.D., Lindenberg, S., Veenstra, R. & Cillessen, A.H.N. (2011). The Emergence of Weapon Carrying in Peer Context. Testing Three Explanations: The Role of Aggression, Victimization, and Friends. Journal of Adolescent Health.

Dijkstra, J.K., Berger, C., & Lindenberg, S. (2011). Do Physical and Relational Aggression Explain Adolescents’ Friendship Selection? The Competing Roles of Network Characteristics, Gender, and Social Status. Aggressive Behavior, 37, 417-429.

Agentic or Communal? Associations between Interpersonal Goals, Popularity, and Bullying in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

Posted on 2011-09-29

Dr. Caravita and Dr. Cillessen have just published a new paper on bullying, social status, and goals. Below are the reference and abstract. The early online version of the article can be found here.

Caravita, S. C. S. & Cillessen, A. H. N. (2011). Agentic or communal? Associations between interpersonal goals,p opularity, and bullying in middle childhood and early adolescence. Social Development. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00632.x.
Simona C. S. Caravita, Antonius H. N. Cillessen

ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether perceived popularity mediates and/or moderates the association between agentic goals and bullying, and whether sociometric popularity mediates and/or moderates the association between communal goals and bullying. Age and gender differences were also examined. Participants were 276 fourth and fifth graders (middle childhood sample) and 196 seventh and eighth graders (early adolescence sample). Peer status and bullying were assessed with sociometric measures, interpersonal goals with self-reports. The theoretical model included both mediation and moderation effects. An age-related reversal was found in how status mediated the associations between goals and bullying. Sociometric popularity mediated the association of agentic goals with bullying in middle childhood but of communal goals with bullying in early adolescence. Perceived popularity mediated the association of communal goals with bullying in middle childhood but of agentic goals with bullying in early adolescence. In middle childhood, perceived popularity also moderated the effect of agentic goals on bullying. The results were discussed in terms of the role of bullying as a means to enhance status in early adolescence.

Research Materials from Dr. Cornell

Posted on 2011-09-07

Dr. Dewey Cornell has announced several recent and upcoming journal publications, which are summarized below. Interested readers can contact Dr. Cornell

Baly, M., & Cornell, D. (2011). Effects of an educational video on student reports of bullying. Journal of School Violence, 10, 221-238. DOI:10.1080/15388220.2011.578275.

This study of 1,283 middle school students examined the effect of an educational video designed to distinguish bullying from ordinary peer conflict. Randomly assigned classrooms of students either watched or did not watch a video prior to completing a self-report bullying survey. Compared to the control group, students who watched the video reported 32% less social bullying victimization and boys who watched the video reported 54% less physical bullying victimization and 68% less physical bullying of others. These results indicate that student self-reports could yield inflated estimates of the prevalence of bullying if students are not adequately educated about the distinction between bullying and other forms of peer conflict.

Shirley, E., & Cornell, D. (in press). The contribution of student perceptions of school climate to understanding the disproportionate punishment of African American students in middle school. School Psychology International.

Gregory, A., Cornell, D., & Fan, X. (in press). The relationship of school structure and support to suspension rates for Black and White high school students. American Educational Research Journal.

This study examined the relationship between structure and support in the high school climate and suspension rates in a statewide sample of 199 schools. School climate surveys completed by 5,035 ninth grade students measured characteristics of authoritative schools, defined as highly supportive, yet highly structured with academic and behavioral expectations. Multivariate analyses showed that schools low on characteristics of an authoritative school had the highest schoolwide suspension rates for Black and White students after statistically controlling for school demographics. Furthermore, schools low on both structure and support had the largest racial discipline gaps. These findings highlight the characteristics of risky settings that may not meet the developmental needs of adolescents and may contribute to disproportionate disciplinary outcomes for Black students.

Cornell, D., Gregory, A., & Fan, X. (in press). Reductions in long-term suspensions following adoption of the Virginia Student Threat Assessment Guidelines. Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary School Principals.

Cornell, D., Allen, K., & Fan, X. (in press). A controlled study of the Virginia Student Threat Assessment Guidelines in grades K-12. School Psychology Review.

Prosocial and antisocial children's perceptions of peers' motives for prosocial behaviours

Posted on 2011-09-01

Dr. Hunter has recently co-authored a paper relating to moral development. The reference and abstract are below. Interested readers can contact Dr. Hunter

 Wardle, G., Hunter, S.C., & Warden, D. (2011). Prosocial and antisocial children’s perceptions of peers’ motives for prosocial behaviours. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 396-408.

This study investigated whether peer-nominated prosocial and antisocial children have different perceptions of the motives underlying peers' prosocial actions. Eighty-seven children, aged 10–12 years old, completed peer-nomination measures of social behaviour. On the basis of numbers of social nominations received, a subsample of 51 children (32 who were peer-nominated as ‘prosocial’, and 18 who were peer-nominated as ‘antisocial’) then recorded their perceptions of peers' motives for prosocial behaviours. Expressed motives were categorized predominantly into three categories, coinciding with Turiel's (1978) ‘moral’, ‘conventional’, and ‘personal domains’. Results indicate that children's social reputation is associated with the extent to which they perceive peers' prosocial motives as ‘personal’ or ‘moral’, with more prosocial children attributing moral motives, and more antisocial children attributing personal motives. Although traditionally Turiel's domain theory has been used to understand ‘antisocial’ children's behaviour, the current findings suggest that ‘prosocial’ children's behaviour may also be related to domains of judgment.

Research Materials from Dr. Farrington

Posted on 2011-09-01

Dr. David Farrington has made a variety of research materials available to BRNET members. BRNET members will be emailed copies of two 2011 special journal editions focusing on bullying:

  • Journal of Aggression, Conflict, and Peace Research – Health Consequences of School Bullying
  • Criminal Behavior and Mental Health – Criminal Consequences of School Bullying

Additionally, below are the references and/or abstracts for three more articles from Dr. Farrington. Interested readers can contact him at Thank you, David!


Ttofi, M. M. & Farrington, D. P. (2011). Effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying: A systematic and meta-analytic review. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7, 27-56.

 This article presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of anti-bullying programs in schools. Studies were included if they evaluated the effects of an anti-bullying program by comparing an intervention group who received the program with a control group who did not. Four types of research design were included: a) randomized experiments, b) intervention-control comparisons with before-and-after measures of bullying, c) other intervention control comparisons, and d) age-cohort designs. Both published and unpublished reports were included. All volumes of 35 journals from 1983 up to the end of May 2009 were hand-searched, as were 18 electronic databases. Reports in languages other than English were also included. A total of 622 reports concerned with bullying prevention were found, and 89 of these reports (describing 53 different program evaluations) were included in our review. Of the 53 different program evaluations, 44 provided data that permitted the calculation of an effect size for bullying or victimization. The meta-analysis of these 44 evaluations showed that, overall, school-based anti-bullying programs are effective: on average, bullying decreased by 20–23% and victimization decreased by 17–20%. Program elements and intervention components that were associated with a decrease in bullying and victimization were identified, based on feedback from researchers about the coding of 40 out of 44 programs. More intensive programs were more effective, as were programs including parent meetings, firm disciplinary methods, and improved playground supervision. Work with peers was associated with an increase in victimization. It is concluded that the time is ripe to mount a new program of research on the effectiveness of anti-bullying programs based on these findings.

Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2010). School bullying: Risk factors, theories and interventions. In F. Brookman, M. Maguire, H. Pierpoint, & T.H. Bennett (Eds.),Handbook of Crime (pp. 427 – 457). Cullompton, Devon: Willan.

Ttofi, M. M. & Farrington, D. P. (2008). Reintegrative shaming theory, moral emotions and bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 34, 352-368.

This article investigates the usefulness of Reintegrative Shaming Theory (RST) in explaining the bullying of siblings in families and peers in schools. Questionnaires were completed by 182 children aged 11–12 years in ten primary schools in Nicosia, Cyprus, about sibling and peer bullying. A vignette-based methodology was used to investigate children’s expectations of the type of shaming their parents would offer in response to their possible wrong doing. Children were also asked questions about the emotions they would have felt (i.e. shame, remorse, guilt or anger) if they were in the position of the child in the vignette. The level of bonding toward each parent was also examined. In agreement with the theory, a path analysis showed that mother bonding influenced children’s expectations of the type of shaming offered by parents. Disintegrative shaming (i.e. shaming offered in a stigmatizing or rejecting way) had a direct effect on the way children managed their shame. Shame management directly influenced sibling and peer bullying. Father bonding had no direct or indirect effects in the model. Against the theory, reintegrative shaming (i.e. shaming offered in the context of approving the wrongdoer while rejecting the wrongdoing) did not have a direct effect on shame management. Beyond the postulates of RST, mother bonding—a plausible indicator of family functioning—had a direct effect on sibling and peer bullying. Mother bonding had a stronger effect for boys than for girls. It is concluded that RST is useful in explaining the link between family factors and bullying, and that RST has cross-cultural applicability.

Effects of validity screening items on adolescent survey data

Posted on 2011-08-10

Below is the reference and abstract for a new study led by Dr. Dewey Cornell. Interested readers should contact Dr. Cornell at

Cornell, D., Klein, J., Konold, T., & Huang, F. (2011). Effects of validity screening items on adolescent survey data. Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0024824.

In 2 studies, we examined the use of validity screening items in adolescent survey data. In each study, adolescent respondents were asked whether they were telling the truth and paying attention in answering survey questions. In Study 1 (N = 7,801), the prevalence rates of student risk behaviors were significantly lower after inappropriate (invalid) responders were screened out of the sample. In addition, confirmatory and multigroup factor analyses demonstrated significant differences between the factor structures of school climate scales with valid versus invalid responders. In Study 2, student perceptions of school climate were correlated with teacher perceptions in 291 schools. A bootstrap resampling procedure compared the correlations obtained with valid versus invalid responding students in each school and found that valid responders had more positive views of school conditions and produced higher correlations with teacher perceptions. These findings support the value of validity screening items in improving the quality of adolescent survey data.

Is Bullying on the Rise?

Posted on 2011-07-06

New article from Dr. Ken Rigby.


Whether bullying in schools is increasing, as is widely believed, was investigated drawing upon empirical studies undertaken in a wide range of countries in which findings had been published describing its prevalence at different points in time between 1990 and 2009. Results do not support the view that reported bullying in general has increased during this period; in fact, a significant decrease in bullying has been reported in many countries. However, there are some indications that cyber bullying, as opposed to traditional bullying, has increased, at least during some of this period. The reported decreases in the prevalence of school bullying are consistent with reports of significant but small reductions in peer victimization following the implementation of anti-bullying programs in schools world-wide.

New research on evidence-based interventions

Posted on 2011-04-11

Below is the reference and abstract for an article by Dr. Farrington and Dr. Ttofi. Interested readers should contact Dr. Farrington at 

Farrington, D. P. & Ttofi, M. M. (2009). Reducing school bullying: Evidence-based implications for policy. Crime & Justice, 38, 281.


School bullying is an important social problem with serious short-term and long-term implications for physical and mental health. Bullies tend to be aggressive and delinquent, whereas victims tend to be anxious and depressed. School-based antibullying programs are effective in reducing bullying and being bullied. On average, bullying was reduced by 20–23pe rcent in experimental schools compared with control schools. The most important program components associated with a decrease in bullying are parent training, improved playground supervision, disciplinary methods, school conferences, videos, information for parents, classroom rules, and classroom management. The most important program elements associated with a decrease in being bullied are videos, disciplinary methods, work with peers, parent training, and cooperative group work. New antibullying programs should be designed, tested, and accredited on the basis of the most effective intervention components.

New research

Posted on 2011-04-11

Below are the references for two new research articles on bullying. Interested readers should contact Dr. Rene Veenstra at

Veenstra, R. & Dijkstra, J.K. (2011). Transformations in Adolescent Peer Networks. In B. Laursen & W. A. Collins (eds.) Relationship Pathways: From Adolescence to Young Adulthood. New York: Sage.

Veenstra, R. & Steglich, C. (2011). Actor-Based Model for Network and Behavior Dynamics: A Tool to Examine Selection and Influence Processes. In B. Laursen, T. D. Little, & N. A. Card (eds.), Handbook of Developmental Research Methods. New York: Guilford.

New research by Dr. Veenstra's research team

Posted on 2010-10-21

BRNET member Dr. Veenstra's research team has released two new papers on the subject of bullying. Click the references below for a pdf of the articles:

Sainio, M., Veenstra, R., Huitsing, G., Salmivalli, C. (2011). Victims and
     their defenders: A dyadic approach. International Journal of Behavioral
     Development, DOI: 10.1177/0165025410378068.

Huitsing, G., Veenstra, R., Sainio, M., & Salmivalli. C. (2011). “It must
     be me” or “It could be them?”: The impact of the social network position of
     bullies and victims on victims’ adjustment. Social Networks,

Student of BRNET member publishes several bullying articles

Posted on 2010-09-29

Jelle Sijtsema, a student of BRNET member Rene Veenstra, has recently published several articles based on his dissertation:

Sijtsema, J. J., Veenstra, R., Lindenberg, S., & Salmivalli, C. (2009). Empirical test of bullies' status goals: Assessing direct goals, aggression, and prestige. Aggressive Behavior, 35, 57-67.

Sijtsema, J. J., Ojanen, T., Veenstra, R., Lindenberg, S., Hawley, P. H., & Little, T. D. (2010). Forms and functions of aggression in adolescent friendship selection and influence: A longitudinal social network analysis. Social Development, 19, 515-534.

Sijtsema, J. J., Lindenberg, S., & Veenstra, R. (2010). Do they get what they want or are they stuck with what they can get? Testing homophily against default selection for friendships of overtly aggressive boys. The TRAILS study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 803-813.

Sijtsema, J. J., Veenstra, R., Lindenberg, S., Van Roon, A. M., Verhulst, F. C., Ormel, J., & Riese, H. (2010). Mediation of sensation seeking and behavioral inhibition on the longitudinal relationship between heart rate and antisocial behavior. The TRAILS Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 493-502.

More information on their work can be found here.

New research by Dr. Caravita

Posted on 2010-03-25


BRNET member Dr. Simona Caravita has a new book chapter out in Social Development related to how morality plays a role in aggressive behaviors, specifically bullying. 

Caravita, S. C. S., Miragoli, S., & Di Blasio, P. (2009). 'Why Should I Behave This Way?' Rule Discrimination 
     Within the School Context Related to Children's Bullying. In Elling, L. R. (Ed.). Social Development. New 
     York: Nova Publishing.

     Social domain model states that by interacting with the social contexts, children organize their moral knowledge in distinct domains, mainly related to (1) moral obligations, aimed at granting persons’ well-being and rights and non-dependent on social expectations, (2) social-conventional rules, aimed at preserving the social orders and dependent on authorities’ dictates [Turiel, 1983], and (3) personal choices. A more social-conventional perception of moral obligations may express a less mature morality, and make easier rule breaking actions, such as aggressive behavior. 
     This chapter aims to explore the relationships between morality and aggressive behaviors, in particular bullying. First, research and theorizations on morality and social behaviors are presented, mainly focusing on the social domain model of morality. Then, bullying is analyzed as a group-phenomenon in which children participate in different ways, that is as bullies, victims, defenders of the victimized peer(s), and bystanders. The associations between moral processes, bullying behavior and the other forms of participation in bullying situations are discussed. 
     A study is described, investigating children’s perceptions of moral and socialconventional rules, related to roles of involvement in bullying episodes. 129 children (aged 7–10 years), and 182 early adolescents (aged 11–15 years) filled in the Participant Role Questionnaire, assessing forms of participation in bullying, and a self-report measure, assessing the discrimination of moral and social-conventional rules in the school context. Children perceive moral and social-conventional rules as distinct kinds of obligations. Bullies do attribute more characteristics of the social-conventional domain to all the rules, and in adolescence judge the breaking of social-conventional rules more acceptable than peers, especially defenders, do. The age-level (mid-childhood vs. early adolescence) has some moderation effects. Practical implications for the anti-bullying intervention are discussed. 

To view the entire article, click on the reference above. It will link you to the publisher's website where you can download the entire article for free.

New research by Dr. Veenstra

Posted on 2010-03-25

BRNET member Dr. René Veenstra has two new publications. 

Veenstra, R., Lindenberg, S., Munniksma, A., & Dijkstra, J.K. (2010). The complex relation between bullying,
     victimization, acceptance, and rejection: Giving special attention to status, affection, and sex differences. 
     Child Development, 81, 480-486.

To understand the complex nature of bullies’ acceptance and rejection, this article considered goal-framing effects of status and affection as they relate to the gender of the bully (male vs. female bullies), the target (male vs. female victims), and the evaluator (acceptance and rejection from male vs. female classmates). The hypotheses were tested with data from a social network questionnaire conducted in 26 elementary school classes (N = 481 children; Mage = 10.5 years). The findings revealed that bullies were only rejected by those for whom they were a potential threat and that bullies generally chose their victims so as to minimize loss of affection by choosing victims who were not likely to be defended by significant others.

Van der Laan, A., Veenstra, R., Bogaerts, S., Verhulst, F.C., & Ormel, J. (2010). Serious, minor, and non-
     delinquents in early adolescence: The impact of cumulative risk and promotive factors. Journal of Abnormal
     Child Psychology, 38, 339-351.

To understand the complex nature of bullies’ acceptance and rejection, this article considered goal-framing effects of status and affection as they relate to the gender of the bully (male vs. female bullies), the target (male vs. female victims), and the evaluator (acceptance and rejection from male vs. female classmates). The hypotheses were tested with data from a social network questionnaire conducted in 26 elementary school classes (N = 481 children; Mage = 10.5 years). The findings revealed that bullies were only rejected by those for whom they were a potential threat and that bullies generally chose their victims so as to minimize loss of affection by choosing victims who were not likely to be defended by significant others.

To view the entire article, click on the reference above.

New research on bystander behavior towards bullying

Posted on 2010-03-01

BRNET member Dr. Gianluca Gini has a new article in press in the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology focusing on the differences between active defending and passive bystanding behaviors towards bullying.

Pozzoli, T., & Gini, G. (in press). Active defending and passive bystanding behavior in bullying: The role of
      personal characteristics and perceived peer pressure. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.

This study examined the role of pro-victim attitudes, personal responsibility, coping responses to observations of bullying, and perceived peer normative pressure in explaining defending the victim and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. A total of 462 Italian early adolescents (mean age = 13.4 years, /SD/ = 9 months) participated in the study. The behaviors were measured through two informants: each individual student and the teachers. The findings of a series of hierarchical regressions showed that, regardless of the informant, problem solving coping strategies and perceived peer normative pressure for intervention were positively associated with active help towards a bullied peer and negatively related to passivity. In contrast, distancing strategies were positively associated with passive bystanding, whereas they were negatively associated with teacher-reported defending behavior. Moreover, self-reported defending behavior was positively associated with personal responsibility for intervention, but only under conditions of low perceived peer pressure. Finally, the perception of peer pressure for intervention buffered the negative influence of distancing on passive bystanding tendencies. Future directions are discussed.